Эссе с аргументацией «за» и «против»
Вначале мы внимательно читаем тему и проверяем, каких аргументов требует данная тема: аргументов общего характера или есть возможность высказать свое собственное мнение.
Первый абзац – вступление – включает в себя несколько предложений, которые представляют тему и выражают ее двойственный характер.
Работая над аргументами, помним, что аргументы “за” и “против” пишем в отдельных абзацах. Сбалансированная аргументация требуется для письменного высказывания данного типа.
Высказывая несколько аргументов “за” или “против”, мы ставим их в логической последовательности, соединяя их союзами или союзными словами. Второй, третий аргументы, подтверждая и расширяя первый, водят следующие союзы и союзные слова:
Apart from the fact that…
Extreme sports are very popular nowadays. (+) (положительный аргумент)
In addition to this, they are so romantic and thrilling. (+)
What’s more, you will get unforgettable impressions and a lot of exercise.(+)
Moreover, you will get unforgettable impressions and a lot of exercise.(+)
Dogs are trained to guard places and find drugs. (+)
As well as this they are kept as pets. (+)
Apart from being trained to guard places, they are kept as pets. (+)
Besides being trained to guard places, they are kept as pets. (+)
They say computer games are violent. (-) (отрицательный аргумент)
In addition to this they can be addictive. (-)
What’s more, they can be addictive. (-)
Moreover, they can be addictive. (-)
Для введения контрастирующих аргументов используются следующие союзы и союзные слова: but, however, on the other hand, yet, although, though, in spite of/despite, in contrast.
They say that fewer people read books nowadays. (-)
On the other hand, books still remain one of the most popular presents for birthdays. (+)
Nevertheless, remain one of the most popular presents for birthdays. (+)
However, remain one of the most popular presents for birthdays. (+)
The train is much cheaper than the plane. (+)
Despite/in spite of the fact that the train is much cheaper than the plane, it is relatively slow. (-)
В основной части эссе мы также употребляем союзы и союзные обороты, выражения: so, as a result, therefore, thus, to begin with, firstly (secondly, thirdly), in my opinion, as far as I am concerned, for example, for instance (such as, like).
В последнем абзаце следует обобщить высказанное и сделать заключение: снова пишем предложение, отражающее противоречивость темы, но в то же время, дающее надежду на нахождение компромисса. Если тема позволяет, здесь четко можно выразить свое мнение. Используем выражения: in conclusion, to sum up (finally, therefore), in general, in summary, all in all.
Сочинения учащихся 11 класса.
By Tatyana Migulko (11 th form)
Present advantages and disadvantages of living in a big city.
There have been a lot of arguments about where it is better to live: in the country or in town.
According to the poll, a lot of people move to bigger cities. But surprisingly, the opposite process has been going on, too. More and more often the inhabitants of big cities are looking for a house or an apartment out in the country. Apparently, there are both positive and negative things about living in a big city.
First of all, it is appealing to live in a big city because there are more opportunities for the ones who are looking for a job or a college. Besides that, living in a city allows us to meet more people than we can in a small town. The architecture of the city is also very beautiful.
On the other hand, when looking for a job, one can face a bigger competition in a big city. More than that, a lot of people feel lonely in big cities. And finally, the ecological misbalance in the cities is obvious. The air and the water is very polluted and it might be dangerous for people’s health.
In conclusion, there are a lot of advantages and disadvantages about living in a big city. It is up to an individual where to live, depending on their preferences and needs.
By Liza Pobolovets (11 th form)
2014 Olympic Games in Sochi.
In 2007 the honour to host 2014 Winter Olympic Games was awarded to Sochi, Russia. Even though thousands of people were celebrating this victory on the squares of Russian cities there is still a dispute over the advantages what hosting the Olympiad gives to Russia
One major advantage is that the region of Sochi will be greatly developed. It includes building new sport and tourist facilities, road-building as well as repairing a great number of city services. In addition to it, hosting the Olympiad will bring a lot of foreign investment into the Russian economy. As a result, the budget of the country will go up. Moreover, the Olympic will stir up the patriotic feelings of Russian people and raise the prestige of our country on the international arena.
The development of the region will unavoidably lead to the growth of the cost of living. A big amount of foreign companies might bring down small local businesses. And the last but not least, rapid changing of the environment is very harmful to the ecological balance in the region. Nevertheless, most people are happy and proud to be hosting the Olympic Games in their home town.
To sum it up, both the advantages and disadvantages of hosting the Olympiad are significant. Still, it cannot be denied that being the host of 2014 Winter Olympic Games is a great honour for Russia.
By Dmitry Korovin (11 th form)
2014 Olympic Games in Sochi.
In today’s world of fierce competition it is very important for our country to hold the Olympics in Sochi in 2014. It can be regarded as a step in the right direction, though it is also not without problems.
Hosting the Olympics brings up the prestige of the country, gives it a lot of new international business offers, and draws foreign investments into domestic economy. That’s why the Games are so appealing to many countries. Besides that, a lot of new touristy and sport facilities are built in the region, which provides people many work positions.
However, as critics are quick to point out, the cost of living of Sochi’s dwellers will rise by far. Apart from this, the development of sports can provide a great ecological damage to our country.
There are a lot of things against and in favour of the Olympic Games in Sochi in 2014. But I personally believe that the main positive aspect about it is the growth of patriotic feelings in the country, which is very important nowadays.
By Alexandra Milyakina (11 th form)
In 2014 our country is holding the Olympics. This has both advantages and disadvantages.
Russia will profit from investments of foreign companies. Furthermore, a lot of money will be obtained from foreign tourists who are going to visit the Olympics and are already booking the places. Also thanks to the Olympiad many places will be made up: all the stadiums, sport facilities, hotels need the staff. So, in this case Sochi will get rid of unemployment. Moreover, the Olympics are believed to raise the prestige of Russia. I think people can be proud that their country is going to be the capital of sport in 2014.
However, some people think that the Olympics can significantly damage the economy of our country. Russia has to invest money from the national budget in order to build new sport facilities and stadiums. Moreover, lots of hotels for sportsmen and their fans have to be constructed. In this case, the expenses made by the country are likely to be rather considerable. Furthermore, the Olympics can do harm to the ecology of the world-known resort.
To sum it up, we can say that all the losses of Russia are going to be compensated by the enormous profits. However, there are some disadvantages that should be taken into account.
Написание сочинения по английскому языку, готовые эссе
Эссе по иностранному языку требует качественного содержания и хорошей организационной структуры, а также грамотного языкового оформления.
Написание сочинения по английскому языку является одним из самых проблемных заданий при сдаче единого государственного экзамена. По сложности конкуренцию ему может составлять только аудирование. Поэтому тренировка в составлении эссе должна быть особенно усиленной и интенсивной.
С 2012 года время, выделенное на весь экзамен по иностранным языкам, увеличено до 180 минут. Так как остальные задания экзамена не были изменены, мы рекомендуем вам потратить дополнительное время именно на письменную часть (80 минут). Более того, уточняется план к заданиям, что может облегчить задачу в написании.
Как и написание письма на английском языке, сочинение входит в часть C. В задании С2 в ЕГЭ по английскому языку нужно написать сочинение с элементами рассуждения по данному высказыванию. Выполнить это задание не будет сложно, если вы будете придерживаться представленных ниже советов от 5-ege.ru.
Используйте формальный стиль письма:
Видео – подробно о написании сочинения
Разделите текст на смысловые абзацы в соответствии с предложенным в задании планом.
Структура по частям
В основной части сочинения все абзацы начинаются с вводного предложения (Topic Sentence) – введения. Далее мысль Topic Sentence развивается и подтверждается.
Объем сочинения должен составлять 200-250 слов. При этом артикль – это тоже слово, поэтому не слишком увлекайтесь с развитием идей, постарайтесь удержаться в заданных рамках.
Клише для сочинений
Готовые эссе (примеры сочинений)
Единый язык для всей планеты. За и против
No doubt that learning languages takes up a lot of time. That is why some people think that it would be better to have only one language on our planet. But will it be really beneficial for mankind?
In my opinion, the reduction of the number of languages is a disaster because it will totally destroy our great cultural heritage. With each loss of a language comes a loss of a culture, a loss of a way of life that deserves to be protected and treated as valuable. I also believe that leaving one language for communication will greatly reduce the linguistic diversity of our planet, which is the key to our survival. What is more, it will be rather difficult to choose which language to use and it may even lead to wars.
Many people think that if we have only one language, communication will become easier and there will be no need to learn foreign languages. I cannot agree with them because knowledge of foreign languages makes a person educated and well rounded. You cannot broaden your mind if you see the world only from the perspective of your own culture. Besides, people are a lot more helpful if you speak their language.
In conclusion, I would argue that we should try our best to preserve the linguistic diversity of our planet. I think that larger cultures should have a respect for minority languages, but first of all the younger generation must want to preserve their native language.
Животные в зоопарке. Как вы к этому относитесь. Справедливо ли это
There are a lot of zoos in the world and millions of people visit them every year. But are zoos harmful or helpful to animals which are caged there?
I strongly believe that we should not keep animals in zoos because captivity is not natural for them and it is a constant stress to a wild animal. Keeping animals in zoos harms them by denying them freedom of movement and association. What is more, zoos are like prisons for animals as they live in small cages and do not get necessary food. In addition, animals become very aggressive and unpredictable as they get older and often attack zoo keepers and other people.
However, most people think that zoos help endangered species survive. But this is not true because most rare animals are extremely difficult to breed in captivity. Besides, in zoos, it is almost impossible to meet the animals’ natural needs. Another argument for keeping animals in zoos is that people learn something new about these animals. Actually, zoos do not teach us much because animals do not act the way they would in the wild. I think we can learn more about animals by watching wildlife programs on TV.
In conclusion, I would argue that zoos do not seem to help endangered species and keeping animals behind bars only for the sake of our entertainment is not quite fair. In my opinion, people must create nature reserves, where wild animals will be able to live in their natural environment.
Запрещение машин в центрах больших городов. За или против
There is no doubt that the invention of the car changed the world and nowadays we can hardly find a family without a car. Nevertheless, some people are against cars, especially in the centers of big cities.
In my opinion, cars should not be allowed into the city centers as they add to pollution and poison the air we breathe. We must also think about the people who live in the center and suffer from the noise made by cars. Moreover, the streets in the center are usually narrow therefore people are often stuck in traffic for many hours and, as a result, arrive late at their destination. Final-ly, with ho cars in city centers, there would be no need for large ugly car parks, which would allow more space for parks. However, many people believe we would not be able to survive without cars because most of the products for shops and other businesses are transported by cars. Besides, they are afraid that public transport would be overloaded. I am sure it is possible to solve these problems by introducing a reliable high frequency tram service as well as developing the underground. As for goods, we could use electric vehicles for their delivery.
To sum up, I believe that a clean, reliable and environmentally friendly public service would encourage people to use public transport and help smooth the transition to a car-free zone.
Изучение иностранного языка – лучшее, что может быть, изучать его в стране, где на нем разговаривают. Согласны ли вы
Nowadays people spend lots of money in order to go to an English-speaking country to improve their language skills. But is it really the most effective way of learning a language? In my view, studying in a foreign country has certain drawbacks. Firstly, this way is very expensive as the tuition fee for overseas students is rather high. Besides, when you study abroad, you have to adapt to a very different way of life, which can be quite stressful. What is more, English teachers do not speak Russian so if you don’t know English well, you will not understand their explanation.
It is often assumed that it is better to study a language abroad because you can always use it speaking with native speakers. However, I doubt that we will have lots of opportunities to speak abroad as we do not know many people there. It is also believed that Russian teachers are not as qualified as those in England. I totally disagree with this opinion because Russian teachers can compare two languages and explain grammar rules better.
To sum up, I would argue that the best way to learn a language is to study it in your native country because you can always get the necessary help from your teachers. Moreover, today we have lots of opportunities to improve our skills such as communicating with English pen-friends over the Internet. I think that we should travel abroad so as to practise a language but not to study it.
Иностранные языки. Сейчас в школах изучают по 2-3 языка. За и против
Most people understand that without knowledge of foreign languages it is difficult to survive in the modern world. Therefore they send their children to schools where they can study two or even three foreign languages. However, is it good to study several languages simultaneously? On the one hand, foreign languages are the main part of our culture so they help us to expand our outlook. We cannot broaden our minds if we see the world only from the perspective of our own culture. In addition, learning languages is a good exercise for the intellect. Moreover, if pupils know at least one foreign language, they learn new languages much faster. On the other hand, many pupils find it confusing to learn two or three languages at a time, especially languages that are similar, because children usually mix up lots of words. Besides, some languages are tricky enough to learn. For example, in English there are more exceptions than rules. In this case, children can be overloaded with homework. More than that, some pupils do not know their native language well and learning several foreign languages could prevent them from mastering their own language.
In conclusion, I want to say that learning languages is extremely beneficial and I would like to know different foreign languages. However, I believe children should not learn too many languages at the same time so as not to get confused. They ought to get a solid base in one language before they start learning a new one. 16. Интернет. За и против We live in the age of information technology and nowadays the Internet is nearly as common as the telephone. No doubt that it is a unique invention, which has influenced all areas of our lives. However, some people consider the Internet one of the greatest evils of our time. On the one hand, the Internet is very useful, because it lets us access a world of facts, figures and knowledge. In addition, with the Internet, it is now possible to speak to friends and relatives any-where in the world cheaply and quickly. Other services are also available through the Internet such as booking tickets or buying things. Moreover, the Internet allows a lot of talented people to show the world their achievements and makes it easier to find a job. On the other hand, the Internet can become a disaster for our society, because people spend hours in front of their computers and neglect their everyday duties. Another worry is the activities of cybercriminals. For example, hackers can steal your money or even your property while cyberterrorists may ‘attack’ the world’s computers, causing chaos, and making planes and trains crash. What is more, leaders of different terrorist or oppositional organizations can use the Internet to find new followers.
In conclusion, I strongly believe that despite the criticisms by some and the fears of others, the Internet seems to have changed our world to the better and we must try to make the best use of it.
Клонирование. За и против
Recent advances in genetic biology have led us to quite a doubtful situation. People all over the world argue whether human cloning research should be controlled by the government as solving problems connected with human cloning is definitely not a piece of cake. In my opinion, human cloning experiments are extremely dangerous because there are huge risks of abnormalities in human clones. Moreover, if clones have been made, they will obviously have serious psychological problems connected with their unusual birth. Finally, there is no doubt that human cloning will change our perception of what is the value of a human life as we might change from having children to manufacturing them. However, scientists claim that human cloning could be very beneficial as therapeutic cloning could provide stem cells for regenerative medicine and tissues for transplantation. Besides, re-productive cloning will probably give parents who are both infertile an opportunity to have children. I am afraid that this technology is not safe enough to use on humans. It is also possible that clones will age quicker since the cell used in the cloning procedure has already been used in a real life individual.
To sum up, we must question whether human cloning is really worth it when weighed against the problems it raises. From my point of view, human reproductive cloning should be under the tight control of the government and the UN because it is dangerous to interfere with nature and the consequences can be really disastrous.
Книги или компьютеры. Кто победит в будущем
The latest advances in information technology make people think that schools of the future will use computers instead of printed books. Although electronic books have not been widely accepted yet, they have certain advantages over traditional paper volumes. But will they be able to replace printed books? In my opinion, students will be widely using computers for studying in the future. To begin with, computers can store lots of books in their memory and modern software allows us to find quickly the necessary information. Besides, with the interactive programs on computers studying will be much more exciting. What is more, electronic books will not degrade overtime like their printed counterparts. On the other hand, lots of disbelievers argue that computers will not replace printed books because a printed book is better for human eyes than a computer screen. In addition, books are cheaper and easier to use since they do not need electricity or the Internet connection. I cannot agree with this because modern computer screens emit no radiation and allow us to read even in low light conditions. Of course we will have to pay for electricity but I think it will be cheaper than to pay for printed books, which are very expensive nowadays.
To sum up, I think computers and printed books will peacefully coexist for years to come, but in the future technological progress will make it possible for students to carry laptops or even palmtops instead of traditional bags with lots of heavy books.
Компьютерные игры. За и против
People have always had different hobbies but technological progress has caused the appearance of computers and computer games, which can keep a child occupied for hours. However, adults consider computer games a complete waste of time. As for me, I believe computer games are more than mindless entertainment. To begin with, computer games can teach people to achieve their aims as they regularly put obstacles and traps in the way of players which are necessary to overcome in order to progress through the rest of the game. Additionally, computer games can be a valuable source of accidental learning that can be applied to school, home, and social events. Moreover, teachers have also started to appreciate educational games as an opportunity to make their lessons more exciting. Nevertheless, quite a few people are against this activity as they find it rather addictive and harmful for children’s health. They argue that computer games make students neglect their school work. However, if we learn to control our computer use and play games for an hour just to relax after a hard day at school, this will not do us any harm. What is more, modern technology made it possible to eliminate the bad effect of computers on our eyes.
To sum up, I believe that computer games have more advantages than drawbacks. They make us persistent, develop our logical reasoning and help us to escape from everyday problems. The thing is to find a right balance between virtual reality and everyday reality.
Космос. За и против исследований в космосе
Space exploration can mean a major leap for mankind. However, it is often criticized because the price for these space experiments is too high, especially while poverty still exists in many parts of the world. On the one hand, space research is extremely beneficial as it advances technology. As a result of this work, we have lots of inventions, which have made our lives much more comfortable. In addition, through the exploration of space, we could find new elements, minerals or even discover new laws of physics and eventually learn more about ourselves. What is more, space exploration will allow us to establish a human civilization on another planet as a hedge against the catastrophe that might occur on the Earth. On the other hand, the benefits of space exploration are not self-evident, no matter how real they are. It costs billions of dollars to fund the projects of space science whereas this money should rather be spent on meeting the needs of the underprivileged. Besides, some of the technology we develop through space science can be used in a destructive manner if it is in the wrong hands. Finally, a travel to space can be dangerous as we may discover something that is extremely harmful for the living beings on Earth.
To conclude, I want to say that space exploration satisfies the human desire for adventure therefore most people are interested in space research. Nevertheless, I believe our governments should find the right balance between social and space programs.
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